ENDNOTES

  1. Berkowitz, I. (January 27, 2020) Unless we drop our antiquated nationalism, we’ll have nothing. https://cartt.ca/analysis-unless-we-drop-our-antiquated-nationalism-well-have-nothing/.

  2. The real estate punchline is “location, location, location.”

  3. Schneider, M. (September 20, 2020). Emmy awards 2020: HBO dominates, ‘Watchmen’ triumphs, ‘Schitt’s Creek’ makes history. Variety. https://variety.com/2020/tv/news/emmys-2020-watchmen-jimmy-kimmel-1234776626/

  4. My words as quoted in CBC News (October 11, 2017). CBC News: Netflix launches campaign to set record straight about 500 million dollar investment. http://www.cbc.ca/beta/news/business/netflix-canada-spending-1.434727

  5. Berkowitz, I.S. (June 10, 2015) In TV’s Golden Age, viewers are already on line. Industry must follow. The Globe and Mail Report on Business. http://www.theglobeandmail.com/report-on-business/rob-commentary/in-tvs-new-golden-age-consumers-have-the-gold-we-should-follow-their-lead/article24879478/

  6. Ismail, S. (2016). How do we fix civilization? Tedx. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mV0oKVOIGG4

  7. CRTC (December 10, 2020). Communications Monitoring Report 2020. https://crtc.gc.ca/eng/publications/reports/policyMonitoring/2020/cmr3.htm

  8. CMF 2020). Annual Report 2019-2020. p.31. https://www.cmf-fmc.ca/CMF/media/documents/CMF-Annual-Report-2019-20-EN.pdf?ext=.pdf

  9. CMPA (April 2, 2020). Profile 2019: Economic report on the screen-based media production industry in Canada. Summary data, p. 4. Exhibit 2-5, p. 25, Canadian English-language TV production.  https://cmpa.ca/wp-content/uploads/2020/04/CMPA_2019_E_FINAL.pdf

  10. CMPA (2020) Profile 2019:Economic Report on the Screen Based Media Production Industry in Canada. https://cmpa.ca/wp-content/uploads/2020/04/CMPA_2019_E_FINAL.pdf

  11. CRTC (March 12, 2015). Broadcasting Regulatory Policy CRTC 2015-86. Government of Canada. para. 28. https://crtc.gc.ca/eng/archive/2015/2015-86.htm

  12. Apprenticeship Program (2000-2021). UNIFOR NABET-700-M. http://www.nabet700.com/applicants/apprenticeship_program/

  13. Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission (December 12, 2020). Telecommunications Monitoring Report 2020. https://crtc.gc.ca/eng/publications/reports/policyMonitoring/2020/cmr3.htm#a1

  14. The Power of TV Advertising in Canada. (2019). ThinkTV. https://thinktv.ca/

  15. Gitlin, T. (2000). Inside prime time. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.p. 31

  16. Reca, A. A. (2006). Issues in media product management. In A. B. Albarran, S. M. Chan-Olmstead, & M. O. Wirth (Eds.), Handbook of media management and economics (pp. 181-201). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

  17. Berkowitz, I.S. (February 27, 2020). Yale report a month on: The good, the bad and a quid pro quo. Playback. https://playbackonline.ca/2020/02/27/yale-report-a-month-on-the-good-the-bad-and-a-quid-pro-quo/

  18. CRTC (March 12, 2015). Broadcasting Regulatory Policy CRTC 2015-86. Government of Canada. para. 28. https://crtc.gc.ca/eng/archive/2015/2015-86.htm

  19. CMPA (April 2, 2020). Profile 2019: Economic report on the screen-based media production industry in Canada. p. 38. https://cmpa.ca/wp-content/uploads/2020/04/CMPA_2019_E_FINAL.pdf

  20. Standing Committee on Canadian Heritage. (2003). Our cultural sovereignty: The second century of Canadian broadcasting. p. 136. http://www.parl.gc.ca/HousePublications/Publication.aspx?DocId=1032284

  21. CRTC defined “peak viewing hours” as 7-11pm rather than traditionally defining prime time as 8-11 pm to help Canadian broadcasters achieve the required 50% Canadian content quota by including news programs.

  22. CMF (2020). Annual Report 2019-2020. p.31. https://www.cmf-fmc.ca/CMF/media/documents/CMF-Annual-Report-2019-20-EN.pdf?ext=.pdf

  23. CMPA (April 2, 2020). Profile 2019: Economic report on the screen-based media production industry in Canada. p. 79. https://cmpa.ca/wp-content/uploads/2020/04/CMPA_2019_E_FINAL.pdf

  24. CMF (2016). National fiction on the small screen: Study on the performance of local and international drama series in nine small television markets CMF-AQPM-SODEC

  25. CMF (2020). Annual Report 2019-2020. p.79 https://www.cmf-fmc.ca/CMF/media/documents/CMF-Annual-Report-2019-20-EN.pdf?ext=.pdf

  26. Berkowitz, I.S. (2016). Domestic supply to global demand: Reframing the challenge of English-language Canadian TV drama. PhD Dissertation. http://digital.library.ryerson.ca/islandora/object/RULA%3A4885/datastream/OBJ/download/Domestic_supply_to_global_demand__reframing_the_challenge_of_Canadian_English-language_television_drama.pdf

  27. Kissell, R. ( January 12, 2015). Golden Globes ratings on NBC down vs. last year, still strong. Variety.http://variety.com/2015/data/ratings/golden-globes-ratings-on-nbc-down-vs-last-year-still-strong-1201400878/

  28. Del Vecchio (September 21, 2020). The 2020 Emmys TV ratings cracked — and so did its relevance. Forbes.https://www.forbes.com/sites/genedelvecchio/2020/09/21/the-2020-emmys-tv-ratings-crashedand-so-did-its-relevance/#a3accf16a2e4

  29. My written presentation is at https://services.crtc.gc.ca/pub/ListeInterventionList/Documents.aspx?ID=218358&Lang=e. The video file is at http://www.cpac.ca/en/digital-archives/?search=Let%27s+Talk+TV

  30. Berkowitz, I. S. (March 13, 2015). CRTC gets it: time to make hits, not shows. The Globe and Mail. https://www.theglobeandmail.com/opinion/crtc-gets-it-time-to-make-hits-not-shows/article23449134/

  31. CBC News (October 10, 2017). Netflix launches campaign to set record straight about $500M Canadian investment.https://www.cbc.ca/news/business/netflix-canada-spending-1.4347276

  32. Berkowitz, I.S. (November 3, 2017). Column: Is it time for a new points system? Playback. https://playbackonline.ca/2017/11/03/column-is-it-time-for-a-new-points-system/

  33. Palao, F., Lapierre, M. and Ismail, S. (2019). Exponential Transformation: Evolve your organization (and change the world) with a 10-week ExO sprint. NJ: John Wilely and Sons.

  34. McQueen, T. (2003). Dramatic choices: A report on Canadian English-language drama. Ottawa, ON: Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission. Retrieved from http://www.crtc.gc.ca/eng/Library/Detail/catalog5894 p. 2

  35. Berkowitz, I.S, Davis, C. H. and Smith, H. (May 22, 2019). Watchtime Canada: How YouTube connects creators and consumers. https://sites.google.com/view/watchtime-2019

  36. Ismail. S., Malone, M., and Van Geest, Y. (2014, 2021) Exponential Organizations: Why new organizations are ten times better, faster, and cheaper than yours and what to do about it. Diversion Books: New York. (2021 edition forthcoming)

  37. based on a famous April 19, 1965 article “ The Future of Integrated Circuits” published in Electronics Magazine on April 19, 1965. by Gordon Moore of CalTech, Cramming more components onto integrated circuits originally published in In 1968, Moore founded Intel Corporation in 1968.

  38. Berkowitz, I.S. (2016). Ten media takeaways from Silicon Valley. CMF Trends. http://devtrends.cmf-fmc.ca/ten-media-takeaways-from-silicon-valley/

  39. O’Brien, G. (April 15, 2015). NAB 2015: Content discoverability to be the top challenge for the TV biz, “and there’s no number two.” Cartt.ca https://cartt.ca/nab-2015-content-discoverability-to-be-the-top-challenge-for-the-tv-biz-and-theres-no-number-two/

  40. Statista (n.d.) Number of Netflix paying subscribers from 2011to 2019 by type. https://www.statista.com/statistics/258321/number-of-netflix-subscribers-by-type/

  41. Erlichman, J. (September 22, 2020).10 years on: How Netflix in Canada has evolved a decade later. https://www.google.com/url?q=https://www.bnnbloomberg.ca/10-years-on-how-netflix-in-canada-has-evolved-a-decade-later-1.1497551&sa=D&ust=1609775298236000&usg=AOvVaw2jaxgQE3ntcBchgMI0aH35

  42. Standing Committee on Canadian Heritage (2003). Our cultural sovereignty: The second century of Canadian broadcasting. pp.5, 301. http://www.parl.gc.ca/HousePublications/Publication.aspx?DocId=1032284

  43. Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission (December 12, 2020). Telecommunications Monitoring Report 2020. https://crtc.gc.ca/eng/publications/reports/policyMonitoring/2020/cmr3.htm#a1

  44. Standing Committee on Canadian Heritage. (2003). Our cultural sovereignty: The second century of Canadian broadcasting. p. 8. http://www.parl.gc.ca/HousePublications/Publication.aspx?DocId=1032284

  45. Statista (n.d.) Penetration rate of Netflix subscribers 2012-2018 bt subscriber’s language. statista.com https://www-statista-com.ezproxy.lib.ryerson.ca/statistics/473746/canada-netflix-subscriber-reach-language/

  46. Pinto, J. (September 24, 2020). Throne Speech reaffirms government plans to regulate digital platforms. Playback. https://playbackonline.ca/2020/09/24/throne-speech-reaffirms-government-plan-to-regulate-digital-platforms/?utm_source=newsletter&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=throne-speech-reaffirms-government-plan-to-regulate-digital-platforms&_u=oCDb6C3h63A%3d

  47. Curry, B. and Dickson, J. (November 3, 2020). Broadcasting bill targets online streaming services. The Globe and Mail. https://www.theglobeandmail.com/politics/article-ottawa-says-broadcasting-act-changes-will-raise-over-800-million-from/

  48. Above the line is a throwback to the printed version of a production budget where a line was drawn under the key elements, including lead writer, producer(s) and sometimes director (more typically in feature length content). Below the line costs detail the manufacturing crew that won’t be hired until these key elements are approved in the development process. While a budget can span 20-100s of pages, a few “above the line” elements take up less than half of the first page.

  49. CRTC (August 25, 2015). FInancial summaries for broadcasting sector. Government of Canada. https://open.canada.ca/data/en/dataset/853acdd6-b3cc-4957-8447-c885669a9dad

  50. Berkowitz, I. S. (June 2016). Domestic supply to Global demand: reframing the challenge of Canadian English-language Canadian television drama. PhD Dissertation. http://digital.library.ryerson.ca/islandora/object/RULA%3A4885/datastream/OBJ/download/Domestic_supply_to_global_demand__reframing_the_challenge_of_Canadian_English-language_television_drama.pdf

  51. Davis, C. H., & Kaye, J. (2010a). “If it ain’t on the page, it ain’t on the stage”: Screenwriting, national specificity and the English-Canadian feature film. Journal of Screenwriting, 2(1), 61-83. doi:10.1386/josc.2.1.61_1

  52. CRTC (March 12, 2015). Jean-Pierre Blais to the Canadian Club of Ottawa on Let’s Talk TV and the future of content made by Canadians (Press release). http://news.gc.ca/web/article-en.do?nid=947239

  53. MacDonald, G. (2007, February 24). A hand up in a tough town. The Globe and Mail. http://www.theglobeandmail.com/arts/a-hand-up-in-a-tough-town/article4094117/?page=al

  54. Royal Commission on National Development in the Arts, Letters, and Sciences. (1951). Report—Royal Commission on National Development in the Arts, Letters, and Sciences, 1949-1951. Ottawa, ON: Edmond Cloutier, Printer to the King’s Most Excellent Majesty. https://www.collectionscanada.gc.ca/massey/h5-400-e.html

  55. Standing Committee on Canadian Heritage. (2003). Our cultural sovereignty: The second century of Canadian broadcasting. p. 149 .http://www.parl.gc.ca/HousePublications/Publication.aspx?DocId=1032284

  56. CRTC (March 12, 2015). Broadcasting Regulatory Policy 2015-86: The way forward—Creating compelling and diverse Canadian programming. Para. 55. http://crtc.gc.ca/eng/archive2015/2015-86.htm

  57. Today in Science History (1999-2020). Albert Einstein. todayinsci.com https://todayinsci.com/E/Einstein_Albert/EinsteinAlbert-Theory-Quotations.htm. Wikipedia explores Occam’s razor (based on the 14th century philosopher, William Ockham) as the principle of a preference for simple explanations in philosophy and science.

  58. Porter, M. E. (2008). On competition—Updated and expanded edition. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School; Porter, M. E. (1990). The competitive advantage of nations. New York, NY: Free Press; Porter, M. E. (1998). Competitive strategy: Techniques for analyzing industries and competitors. New York, NY: The Free Press. (Original work published 1980).

  59. Christensen, C. (2000). The Innovator’s Dilemma. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Publishing; Christensen, C., Anthony, S., & Roth, E. A. (2013). Seeing what’s next: Using the theories of innovation to predict industry change. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Publishing.

  60. Slywotzky, A.J. (1996). Value migration: How to think several moves ahead of the competition. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press., p. 17

  61. CMPA (April 2, 2020). Profile 2019: Economic report on the screen-based media production industry in Canada. p. 18. https://cmpa.ca/wp-content/uploads/2020/04/CMPA_2019_E_FINAL.pdf

  62. CRTC (August 25, 2020). FInancial summaries for broadcasting sector. Government of Canada. https://open.canada.ca/data/en/dataset/853acdd6-b3cc-4957-8447-c885669a9dad

  63. Sources include Elmer, G., & Gasher, M. (Eds). (2005). Contracting out Hollywood: Runaway productions and foreign location shooting. Rowman & Littlefield; , G., Davis C. H., Marchessault, J., & McCullough, J. (Eds.). (2010). Locating migrating media. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books; Tinic, S. (2005). On location: Canada’s television industry in a global market. Toronto, ON: University of Toronto Press; Zitzerman, D. (2014, January). Great White North. Update re: film and TV production in Canada. Los Angeles, CA. Goodmans LLP.

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  65. Vlessing, E. (October 16, 2020). City Hall is recruiting a private developer to build 500,000 square feet of stages and facilities on a chunk of land next to Pinewood Studios. https://www.hollywoodreporter.com/index.php/news/giant-film-studio-development-planned-for-toronto

  66. I have initiated 2 ideas to remedy this creative disconnect between Canada and Hollywood. Both got traction and the effort is ongoing.

  67. BBC: 10351 Santa Monica Blvd. ITV: 15303 Ventura Blvd. Australia Channel Seven: 10100 Santa Monica Blvd. Channel Nine: 6255 Sunset Blvd. Channel Ten: 3440 Motor Ave.

  68. Porter, M. E. (1998, November). Clusters and the new economics of competition. Harvard Business Review, 77-90. https://hbr.org/1998/11/clusters-and-the-new-economics-of-competition

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  70. Berkowitz, I.S., Davis, C.H., Smith, H. (May 22, 2019). Watchtime Canada: How YouTube connects creators and consumers. p.13. https://sites.google.com/view/watchtime-2019

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  72. Berkowitz, I. S. (July 6, 2015). Yanking the value chain: how to make global hits. Playback. http://playbackonline.ca/2015/07/06/yanking-the-value-chain-how-to-make-global-hits/

  73. Berkowitz, I., Davis, C. H., Smith, H. (2019). Watchtime Canada: How YouTube connects creators and consumers. https://audiencelab.fcad.ryerson.ca/wp-content/uploads/2019/05/YouTube-Full-Report-FINAL_V7_May21.pdf and https://sites.google.com/view/watchtime-2019

  74. Berkowitz, I., Davis, C. H., Smith, H. (2019). Watchtime Canada: How YouTube connects creators and consumers. Figure 2.22 Please note that on YouTube, an eligible creators is an audience-derived definition, requiring more than 1,000 subscribers and 4,000 hours of watch time within the previous 12 months. https://audiencelab.fcad.ryerson.ca/wp-content/uploads/2019/05/YouTube-Full-Report-FINAL_V7_May21.pdf and https://sites.google.com/view/watchtime-2019

  75. Data as of December 2019, compiled by the author from youtube.com and socialblade.com.

  76. Berkowitz, I., Davis, C. H., Smith, H. (2019). Watchtime Canada: How YouTube connects creators and consumers. https://audiencelab.fcad.ryerson.ca/wp-content/uploads/2019/05/YouTube-Full-Report-FINAL_V7_May21.pdf and https://sites.google.com/view/watchtime-2019

  77. Press, J. (August 29, 2019). Why Israeli TV Is Irresistible to American Producers: From Homeland to Euphoria to Sacha Baron Cohen’s new Netflix series, American TV can’t stop adapting inventive Israeli formats. Vanity Fair. https://www.vanityfair.com/hollywood/2019/08/why-israeli-tv-is-irresistible-to-american-producers

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  93. Danish TV is sooo hot right now (ND) https://scandification.com/best-danish-tv-series/

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  110. World Economic Forum (2020). Global Competitive Index 2016-2017: Country Profiles. http://reports.weforum.org/global-competitiveness-index-2016-2017/country-profiles/#economy=ISR. The 16 factors evaluated were capacity to innovate, government bureaucracy, labor regulations, tax regulations, tax rates, access to financing, infrastructure, work ethic, corruption, crime and theft, education, inflation, foreign currency regulation, government stability, and public health), For the two other countries profiled, innovation capacity ranks towards the middle of the list, 10th and 7th for Denmark and South Korea, respectively.

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  112. Friedman, G. (August 15, 2020).Epic TV series ‘Beauty Queen of Jerusalem’ to feature ‘Shtisel’ star Aloni Production underway on ambitious Israeli show telling family’s story in Israel throughout the early 20th century.The Times of Israel. https://www.timesofisrael.com/epic-tv-series-beauty-queen-of-jerusalem-to-feature-shtisel-star-aloni/

  113. Brown, H. (August 8, 2020). Israeli TV show ‘Tehran’ goes global: The producers are hoping that Tehran can draw an international audience once it debuts on Apple and that it will become a talked-about hit the way Fauda and Shtisel have. Jerusalem Post. https://www.jpost.com/israel-news/culture/israeli-tv-show-tehran-goes-global-637783

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  118. Canadian films at Canadian theatrical box office have a share of about 2%, a statistic that seems a historical anomaly in the streaming era. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cinema_of_Canada

  119. As quoted in Jin, Dal Yong (2016). “The Rise of the New Korean Wave”. In Jin, Dal Yong (ed.). New Korean Wave. New Korean Wave. Transnational Cultural Power in the Age of Social Media. University of Illinois Press. pp. 3–19. ISBN 978-0252039973.

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  127. Zeitchek, S. (February 8, 2020). A woman has not won a screenwriting Oscar since the George W. Bush administration. Activists call it a travesty, The Washington Post. https://www.washingtonpost.com/business/2020/02/08/woman-has-not-won-screenwriting-oscar-since-george-w-bush-administration/. Women in Hollywood (n.d.). 2019 Statistics. https://womenandhollywood.com/resources/statistics/2019-statistics/

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  130. In designing the Canadian framework, traditional “primetime” (8-11) was replaced by “evening hours” 6pm-12am to allow Canadian networks to meet their 50% quota of Canadian content by including news and prime access (7-8pm), leaving most of the traditional prime time open for Hollywood hits because popular primetime shows are TV’s economic driver.

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  135. Some sources: Babe, R. E. (2000). Canadian communication thought: Ten foundational writers. Toronto, ON: University of Toronto Press; Edwardson, R. (2008). Canadian content, culture and the quest for nationhood. Toronto, ON: University of Toronto Press; Frye, N. (1971). The bush garden: Essays on the Canadian imagination. Toronto, ON: House of Anansi.diss-Frye, N. 1971; Godfrey, S., & Unger, F. (2004). The shifting foundations of modern nation-states: Realignments of belonging. Toronto, ON: University of Toronto Press; Johnson-Yale, C. (2008). “So-called runaway film production”: Countering Hollywood’s outsourcing narrative in the Canadian press. Critical Studies in Media Communications, 25(2), 113-134. doi:10.1080/15295030802032259; Noam, E. M. (July 11, 2008). TV or not TV: Three screens, one regulation? Report to the Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications http://www.crtc.gc.ca/eng/media/noam2008.htm

  136. Babe, R. E. (2000). Canadian communication thought: Ten foundational writers. Toronto, ON: University of Toronto Press

  137. Frye, N. (1971). The bush garden: Essays on the Canadian imagination. P. iii-iv. Toronto, ON: House of Anansi.

  138. Edwardson, R. (2008). Canadian content, culture and the quest for nationhood. Toronto, ON: University of Toronto Press. p. 283

  139. Noam, E. M. (2008, July 11). TV or not TV: Three screens, one regulation? (Report to the Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission). Reasons for Regulation section, para. 6 http://www.crtc.gc.ca/eng/media/noam2008.htm

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  141. Royal Commission on Radio Broadcasting. (1929). Report of the Royal Commission on Radio Broadcasting. Ottawa, ON: F.A. Acland, Printer to the King. pps. 1, 4, 17 http://publications.gc.ca/collections/collection_2014/bcp-pco/CP32-104-1929-eng.pdf.

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  143. Government of Canada, Report of the Royal Commission on Radio Broadcasting (1929). p.p. 1, 3, 17 http://publications.gc.ca/collections/collection_2014/bcp-pco/CP32-104-1929-eng.pdf

  144. Government of Canada, Report of the Royal Commission on Radio Broadcasting (1929). p. 6 http://publications.gc.ca/collections/collection_2014/bcp-pco/CP32-104-1929-eng.pdf

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  150. Wikipedia (n.d.) Texaco Star Theatre. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Texaco_Star_Theater

  151. Litt, P. (1992). The muses, the masses and the Massey Commission. Toronto, ON: University of Toronto Press. p. 71, from CKEY briefs (vol. 7 no. 86, pp. 28-29).

  152. Report – Royal Commission on National Development in the Arts, Letters, and Sciences, 1949-1951. (1951). Ottawa: ON: Edmond Cloutier, Printer to the King’s Most Excellent Majesty Royal Commission, 1951. Section 18, para. 26 https://www.collectionscanada.gc.ca/massey/index-e.html

  153. OFA Entertainment. (2010). The Ed Sullivan Show—The official Ed Sullivan site. Retrieved from http://www.edsullivan.com/most-frequent-ed-sullivan-show-guests. Canadians Wayne and Shuster became the most frequent performers on The Ed Sullivan Show. With 58 appearances, they beat Topo Gigio, a mouse puppet who appeared 50 times.

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  155. Report – Royal Commission on National Development in the Arts, Letters, and Sciences, 1949-1951. (1951). Ottawa, ON: Edmond Cloutier, Printer to the King’s Most Excellent MajestyRoyal Commission, 1951, Chapter II, paras. 9-10, [my italics]

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  159. Government of Canada. Copyright Act. Justice Laws. https://laws-lois.justice.gc.ca/eng/acts/C-42/Index.html has undergone a review process. The results were tabled in May 2019, resulting in 36 recommendations. Part I, Section 3(d) https://gowlihngwlg.com/en/insights-resources/articles/2019/more-changes-to-canadian-copyright-law-announced/

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  161. Government of Canada (1991), Broadcasting Act. Justice Laws. Broadcasting Policy, Section 3, para. d.

  162. Palmer, P. (January 23, 2015). Why broadcasting and telecoms belong in different legislation. Philip Palmer Law. http://philippalmerlaw.ca/broadcasting-telecoms-belong-different-legislation/

  163. CRTC (1971). Canadian Broadcasting, A Single System: Policy Statement on Cable Television. Section 4 Many thanks to retired CRTC Executive, Margaret Kennedy, who facilitated my request for the original documents on simultaneous substitution and spent hours of research to find these archived files.

  164.  Personal communication with the author.

  165. Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission. (2011). Broadcasting Decision 2011-441: Group-based licence renewals for English-language television groups—Introductory decision. Canadian Program Expenditures. http://www.crtc.gc.ca/eng/archive/2011/2011-441.htm

  166. Berkowitz, I.S. (February 27, 2020). Yale report a month on: The good, the bad and a quid pro quo. https://playbackonline.ca/2020/02/27/yale-report-a-month-on-the-good-the-bad-and-a-quid-pro-quo/

  167. Grant, P. S., & Buchanan, G. (Eds.). (2010). Regulatory guide to Canadian television. Toronto, ON: McCarthy Tetrault.

  168. Rogers Communications Inc. (October 8, 2014). Intervention 2345, Appendix C by Armstrong Consulting: The economic value of simultaneous signal substitution for English-language private television broadcasters. https://services.crtc.gc.ca/pub/ListeInterventionList/Default-Defaut.aspx?en=2014-190&dt=i&S=C&PA=b&PT=nc&PST=a&lang=e

  169. Thanks to CRTC who provided the dates of meetings between the industry and the CRTC over the four years (1980-1984) that it took to create the 10 point system.

  170. Berkowitz, I.S. (January 27, 2020). Analysis: Unless we drop our antiquated nationalism, we’ll have nothing. cartt.ca https://cartt.ca/analysis-unless-we-drop-our-antiquated-nationalism-well-have-nothing/

  171. Zitzerman, D. (March 2012). Structuring an international treaty co-production or a CRTC co-venture: Insight 5th edition entertainment law: Best practice and lessons learned. www.goodmans.ca/files/file/docs/zitzerman.pdf, p. 6

  172. An obscure report about new opportunities emerging in the U.S. may have laid conceptual groundwork for the Canadian co-ventures category. Apparently authored by a consulting company for Pierre Elliot Trudeau’s Department of Communications, it observed that opportunity and mutual need would define the U.S. market for Canadian TV programs. It emphasized Canadian creative talent: “In the final analysis, it is the strength of the program idea that matters most. Canadians do not lack talent or ideas” (Grieve, Horner, & Associates, 1983).

  173. Canadian Forex. (June 29, 2015). Yearly average exchange rate for currencies. http://www.canadianforex.ca/forex-tools/historical-rate-tools/yearly-average-rates

  174. Berkowitz, I.S. (January 27, 2020). Analysis: Unless we drop our antiquated nationalism, we’ll have nothing. cartt.ca https://cartt.ca/analysis-unless-we-drop-our-antiquated-nationalism-well-have-nothing/

  175. Per CRTC 2015-86 (March 12, 2015), The Way Forward, Canadian content daytime quotas were removed in 2016.

  176. Broadcast exhibition quotas underwent revisions, but there were few substantive changes until CRTC’2015 decision resulting from Let’s Talk TV,# the nation’s first inquiry on the impact of global media disruption. Daytime regulations were removed, so as to focus on high-budget, high-employment primetime Canadian content, another strategy to direct more resources towards Canadian content in the hopes of increasing popularity. Let’s Talk TV is examined in Chapter 5.

  177. Lemieux, R., & Jackson, J. ( October 12, 1999) Cultural exemptions in Canada’s major international trade agreements and investment relationships. http://www.parl.gc.ca/Content/LOP/researchpublications/prb9925-e.ht

  178. McGregor, J. (October 17, 2018). Canada to apply USMCA cultural exemption to trade in digital media. cbc.ca ttps://www.cbc.ca/news/politics/usmca-nafta-cultural-exemption-1.4865113

  179. CRTC (May 17, 1999). CRTC Broadcasting Public Notice (PN) 1999-84, Telecom PN 99-14. The Commission’s approach to new media. para. 6. http://www.crtc.gc.ca/eng/archive/1999/pb99-84.htm

  180. The Power of TV Advertising in Canada. (2019). ThinkTV. https://thinktv.ca/

  181. Berkowitz, I.S. (February 27, 2020). Yale report a month on: The good, the bad and a quid pro quo. Playback. https://playbackonline.ca/2020/02/27/yale-report-a-month-on-the-good-the-bad-and-a-quid-pro-quo/#ixzz6hCaXCMop

  182. Standing Committee on Canadian Heritage. (2003). Our cultural sovereignty: The second century of Canadian broadcasting. http://www.parl.gc.ca/HousePublications/Publication.aspx?DocId=1032284. p. 136.

  183. for example, Macerola, F. (2003, June). Canadian content in the 21st century in film and television productions: A matter of cultural destiny (Cat. No. CH44-29/2003). https://www.sfu.ca/cmns/courses/230/Body%20text.section/Canada/Canadian%20Content-2003E.pdf

  184. Standing Committee on Canadian Heritage. (2003). Our cultural sovereignty: The second century of Canadian broadcasting. http://www.parl.gc.ca/HousePublications/Publication.aspx?DocId=1032284, p.121.

  185. Standing Committee on Canadian Heritage. (2003). Our cultural sovereignty: The second century of Canadian broadcasting. Standing Committee on Canadian Heritage, p. 132-164.

  186. Zitzerman, D. (March, 2012). Structuring an international treaty co-production or a CRTC co-venture: Insight 5th edition entertainment law: Best practice and lessons learned. www.goodmans.ca/files/file/docs/zitzerman.pdf

  187. Hoskins, C., McFadyen, S. & Finn, A. (2004). Media economics: Applying economics to new and traditional media. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. p. 160-320.

  188. Porter, M. E. (1998b, November). Clusters and the new economics of competition. Harvard Business Review, p. 86-87

  189. Coalition of Canadian Audio-Visual Unions, 2003.

  190. McQueen, T. (2003). Dramatic choices: A report on Canadian English-language drama. Ottawa, ON: Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission. p. 2. http://www.crtc.gc.ca/eng/Library/Detail/catalog5894

  191. CRTC (November 29, 2004). Incentives for English-language Canadian television drama (Broadcasting Public Notice CRTC 2004-93). http://www.crtc.gc.ca/eng/archive/2004/pb2004-93.htm

  192. Government of Canada, Department of Canadian Heritage. (2009). Canada Media Fund. para. 27. http://www.pch.gc.ca/eng/1294329166335/1294330109930

  193. de Rosa, M. and Burgess, M. (December 2015). An international comparative study: How national content is defined in Canada and selected countries for the purpose of providing access to public support. CMPA-CMF-Telefilm-OMDC-MDR; CMF-Olsberg SPI (September 2015). New funding models: How funders cope in a changing media environment. London, UK.

  194. Berkowitz, I. S. (June 10, 2015). In TV’s Golden Age, viewers are already on line. Industry must follow. The Globe and Mail Report on Business. http://www.theglobeandmail.com/report-on-business/rob-commentary/in-tvs-new-golden-age-consumers-have-the-gold-we-should-follow-their-lead/article24879478/

  195. Statista (n.d.) Penetration rate of Netflix subscribers in Canada 2012-2018 by subscriber’s language. statista.com https://www-statista-com.ezproxy.lib.ryerson.ca/statistics/473746/canada-netflix-subscriber-reach-language/

  196. Public Interest Advocacy Center/PIAC ( September 9, 2014). Let’s Talk TV, Day 2. http://www.piac.ca/telecom/let_s_talk_tv_day_2/

  197. Oliveira, M. (September 20, 2013). Netflix doubles subscriber base in Canada. The Globe and Mail. https://www.theglobeandmail.com/technology/business-technology/netflix-doubles-subscriber-base-in-canada-survey-says/article14433587/

  198. As quoted in Berkowitz, I. S. (February 27, 2020). Yale report a month on: The good, the bad, and a quid pro quo. Playback. https://playbackonline.ca/2020/02/27/yale-report-a-month-on-the-good-the-bad-and-a-quid-pro-quo/ in a speech by then CRTC VP of Telecommunications, Peter Menzies. Original speech can be found at: Government of Canada (September 23, 2013). Speech by Peter Menzies. https://www.canada.ca/en/news/archive/2013/09/speech-peter-menzies.html

  199. Friends of Canadian Broadcasting (March 12, 2015),. Speech: CRTC Chairman on Let’s Talk TV and the future of content made by Canadians by Jean-Pierre Blais. https://friends.ca/explore/article/speech-crtc-chairman-on-lets-talk-tv-and-the-future-of-content-made-by-canadians-by-jean-pierre-blais/Age of abundance, paras. 11-12 & Conclusion, para. 2) http://news.gc.ca/web/article-en.do?nid=926529

  200. Berkowitz, (I. S.) (September 9, 2014) Brain Drain to Brain Chain | Can Con to Can Brand—Reframing the Challenge of English Language Canadian TV Drama https://services.crtc.gc.ca/pub/ListeInterventionList/Documents.aspx?ID=218358&en=2014-190&dt=i&lang=e&S=C&PA=b&PT=nc&PST=a

  201. CRTC (2014) Interventions, Public Process 2014-90 https://services.crtc.gc.ca/pub/ListeInterventionList/Default-Defaut.aspx?en=2014-190&dt=i&lang=e&S=C&PA=b&PT=nc&PST=a

  202. Berkowitz, I.S. (July 7, 2014). Is it time to rebrand Canadian TV. playbackonline.ca http://playbackonline.ca/2014/07/07/oped-is-it-time-to-re-brand-canadian-tv/%23ixzz36oOrqGOX

  203. Government of Canada, CRTC (September 2014). Agenda: Hearing 8 September 2014, Gatineau, Quebec. https://crtc.gc.ca/Broadcast/eng/HEARINGS/2014/ag08_09.htm?_ga=2.73238035.1286938753.1610379155-680731202.1605035722

  204. Berkowitz, I. S. (September 9, 2014)  Can Con to Can Brand – Let’s pivot our goal from domestic supply to global demand. (Written version of live presentation at CRTC hearing, Let’s talk TV). https://services.crtc.gc.ca/pub/ListeInterventionList/Documents.aspx?ID=218358&Lang=
  205. Government of Canada (2014). CRTC, related documents. Berkowitz, I. (October 3, 2014). Future Proofing Canada’s Media System—From Investment to Return on Investment: Global Applause Is not Just Good Business—It’s Great Culture https://services.crtc.gc.ca/pub/ListeInterventionList/Documents.aspx?ID=218358&en=2014-190&dt=f&lang=e&S=C&PA=b&PT=nc&PST=a

  206. Berkowitz, I.S. (September 15, 2014). Canadians want good programs, not 300 channels. The Globe and Mail. https://www.theglobeandmail.com/opinion/canadians-want-good-programs-not-300-channels/article20600050/

  207. CRTC. (2014). Public Process 2014-190. https://services.crtc.gc.ca/pub/ListeInterventionList/Default-Defaut.aspx?en=2014-190&dt=f&lang=e&S=C&PA=b&PT=nc&PST=a

  208. CRTC (March 26, 2015). Let’s Talk TV decisions at a glance. http://www.crtc.gc.ca/eng/com300/infograph1.htm

  209. CRTC (January 29, 2015). Broadcasting Regulatory Policy 2015-25: Measures to address issues related to simultaneous substitution. http://www.crtc.gc.ca/eng/archive/2015/2015-24.htm

  210. Rogers Communications Inc. (October 8, 2014). Intervention 2345, Appendix C by Armstrong Consulting: The economic value of simultaneous signal substitution for English-language private television broadcasters. https://services.crtc.gc.ca/pub/ListeInterventionList/Default-Defaut.aspx?en=2014-190&dt=i&S=C&PA=b&PT=nc&PST=a&lang=e

  211. CRTC (March 12, 2015). Jean-Pierre Blais to the Canadian Club of Ottawa on Let’s Talk TV and the future of content made by Canadians (Press release). Today’s Decision section, para. 3. http://news.gc.ca/web/article-en.do?nid=947239

  212. CRTC (March 12, 2015). Jean-Pierre Blais to the Canadian Club of Ottawa on Let’s Talk TV and the future of content made by Canadians (Press release). Today’s Decision section, para. 3. http://news.gc.ca/web/article-en.do?nid=947239

  213. CRTC (March 12, 2015). Broadcasting Regulatory Policy 2015-86.The way forward – Creating compelling and diverse Canadian programming. http://crtc.gc.ca/eng/archive2015/2015-86.htm

  214. Berkowitz, I.S. (March 13, 2015). CRTC gets it: Time to make hits, not shows. The Globe and Mail Report on Business http://www.theglobeandmail.com/globe-debate/crtc-gets-it-time-to-make-hits-not-shows/article23449134/

  215. Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission (CRTC) (March 26, 2015). Let’s Talk TV decisions at a glance. https://crtc.gc.ca/eng/television/services/idecisions.htm

  216. Porter, M. E. (1990). The competitive advantage of nations.. New York, NY: Free Press. pp. 30 and 169-171

  217. Jackson, E. (June 14, 2016). Netflix lands over a million new subscribers in less than a year. National Post. http://www.nationalpost.com/netflix+lands+over+million+canadian+subscribers+less+than+year+report/11986099/story.html

  218. Statista. Number of Netflix subscribers in Canada 2017-2023. Subscribers continued to grow to over 7M in 2019 and are expected to reach 8M in 2023, amidst competition from other online services such as Disney Plus and Amazon Prime Video. https://www-statista-com.ezproxy.lib.ryerson.ca/statistics/685141/canada-netflix-subscribers-count/. By comparison, cable subscriptions to English speaking households from 2010-2017 dropped lightly, about 7500 to 7,000: Television cable subscription in Canada 2010-2017 by provider. https://www-statista-com.ezproxy.lib.ryerson.ca/statistics/431299/tv-subscribers-canada-corporation/ \

  219. The Power of TV Advertising in Canada. (2019). ThinkTV. https://thinktv.ca/

  220. Canadian Content in a Digital World: https://www.canada.ca/en/services/culture/consultations.html & Creative Canada Policy Framework: https://www.canada.ca/en/canadian-heritage/campaigns/creative-canada/framework.html

  221. Government of Canada (August 26, 2016). Thank you to those who participated… Canadian content in a digital world. https://www.canadiancontentconsultations.ca/home

  222. Government of Canada (September 2016). Canadian content in a digital world. Department of Canadian Heritage. https://s3.ca-central-1.amazonaws.com/ehq-production-canada/documents/attachments/e328d01aaa5d8b25b5b2e769f0f3ccb59f63893e/000/004/022/original/PCH-DigiCanCon-Consultation_Paper.pdf?1474391164

  223. Reid, R. (June 14, 2017). Banff 17: JP Blais’ last stand. Playback. https://playbackonline.ca/2017/06/14/banff-17-jp-blais-last-stand/

  224. Ismail. S., Malone, M., and Van Geest, Y. (2014, 2021) Exponential Organizations: Why new organizations are ten times better, faster, and cheaper than yours and what to do about it. Diversion Books: New York. (2021 edition forthcoming)

  225. Berkowitz, I. S. (December 1, 2016). TV is about to be disrupted and the CRTC knows it. The Globe and Mail http://www.theglobeandmail.com/opinion/cable-tv-is-about-to-be-disrupted-and-the-crtc-knows-it/article33121340/

  226. Anderson, C. (2006). The long tail: Why the future of business is selling less of more. New York: Hyperion.

  227. Government of Canada. Canadian Heritage. https://www.canada.ca/en/canadian-heritage/services/exporting-creative-industries/creative-export-strategy.html

  228. Government of Canada. Canadian Heritage. https://www.canada.ca/en/canadian-heritage/services/funding/creative-export-canada.html

  229. Berkowitz, I.S. (October 3, 2017). Five reasons to like Minister Joly’s Netflix deal. The Globe and Mail. https://www.theglobeandmail.com/report-on-business/rob-commentary/five-reasons-to-like-heritage-minister-melanie-jolys-netflix-deal/article36472751/

  230. Berkowitz, I.S. (November 3, 2017). Column: Is it time for a new points system? playbackonline.ca. https://playbackonline.ca/2017/11/03/column-is-it-time-for-a-new-points-system/

  231. Berkowitz, I.S. (December 7, 2017). Hey Industry: Let’s be clear about the Netflix tax. https://playbackonline.ca/2017/12/07/column-hey-industry-lets-be-clear-about-the-netflix-tax/

  232. Wong, T. (November 8, 2019). Quebec’s Netflix tax was a big success — will Ottawa follow with one of its own? https://www.thestar.com/news/canada/2019/11/08/quebec-was-the-first-to-impose-a-sales-tax-on-netflix-will-the-rest-of-canada-follow.html

  233. Curry, B. (January 22, 2019). Saskatchewan joins Quebec in requiring Netflix to collect sales tax. https://www.theglobeandmail.com/politics/article-saskatchewan-joins-quebec-in-requiring-netflix-to-collect-sales-tax/

  234. CRTC (October 12, 2017).Broadcasting Notice of Consultation 217-359. crtc.ca https://crtc.gc.ca/eng/archive/2017/2017-359.htm

  235. CRTC (December, 2019). Reference document: Consultation of the future of program distribution in Canada. crtc.ca. https://crtc.gc.ca/eng/television/program/s15r.htm7

  236. CRTC (May 31, 2018). Harnessing Change: The future of program distribution in Canada. crtc.ca https://crtc.gc.ca/eng/publications/s15/

  237. Berkowitz, I.S. (July 5, 2018). We need to talk about Canadian drama. playbackonline.ca. https://playbackonline.ca/2018/07/05/column-we-need-to-talk-about-canadian-drama/

  238. CRTC (December 2017). Consultation on the future of program distribution in Canada: Reference Document.# https://crtc.gc.ca/eng/television/program/s15r.htm

  239. CRTC (2018). Harnessing change: The future of program distribution in Canada. https://crtc.gc.ca/eng/publications/s15/

  240. Houpt, S. and Krashinsky Robertson, S. (January 31, 2019). CBC head under fire after comparing Netflix to the British Raj, warns of ‘cultural imperialism.” The Globe and Mail.  https://www.theglobeandmail.com/arts/article-cbc-head-warns-netflix-poses-cultural-threat-to-canada/Pinto, J. (February 1, 2019). Media leaders, Netflix spar on Prime Time stage. playbackonlin

  241. Geist, M. (January 31, 2019). The real over-the-top: CBC President likens Netfl to cultural imperialism such as the British in India or French in Africa. Michael Geist ca https://www.michaelgeist.ca/2019/01/the-real-over-the-top-cbc-president-likens-netflix-to-cultural-imperialism-such-as-the-british-in-india-or-french-in-africa/

  242. Government of Canada (January 14, 2019). Broadcasting and Telecommunications Legislative Review Panel: Biographies.  https://www.ic.gc.ca/eic/site/110.nsf/eng/00002.html

  243. Government of Canada (September 25, 2018). Broadcasting and telecommunications panel launches consultations: News release. https://www.ic.gc.ca/eic/site/110.nsf/eng/00004.html

  244. Government of Canada (June 26,  2019) What we heard.  https://www.canada.ca/en/innovation-science-economic-development/news/2019/06/broadcasting-and-telecommunications-panel-releases-what-we-heard-report.htm

  245. The tweet can be found here: Geist, M. (June 27m 2019). What is the point of the Broadcast and Telecom Review if the government has already decided what it intends to do. michaelgeist.ca https://www.michaelgeist.ca/2019/06/pointofbtlr/

  246. The Wire Report (June 26, 2019). Rodriguez promises CanCon rules for ‘web giants.’ https://www.thewirereport.ca/2019/06/26/rodriguez-promises-cancon-discoverability-rules-for-web-giants

  247. Berkowitz, I.S. (October 24, 2019). Bordering the U.S.: Win or lose for Canadian media? playbackonline.ca. https://playbackonline.ca/2019/10/24/bordering-the-u-s-win-or-lose-for-canadian-media/

  248. Pinto, J. (November 21, 2019). Steven Guilbeaut named Minister of Canadian Heritage. playbackonline.ca. https://playbackonline.ca/2019/11/21/steven-guilbeault-named-minister-of-canadian-heritage/#ixzz6LJLsBgk1

  249. Berkowitz, I.S. (January 13,, 2020).Follow the Money: How Canadian creators are rocking it on YouTube. Playback. https://playbackonline.ca/2020/01/23/follow-the-money-how-canadian-creators-are-rocking-it-on-youtube/

  250. Berkowitz, I.S. (January 27, 2020). Unless we drop our antiquated nationalism, we’ll have nothing. Playback. https://cartt.ca/analysis-unless-we-drop-our-antiquated-nationalism-well-have-nothing/ Cartt.ca

  251. Berkowitz, I. (January 27, 2020). Analysis: Unless we drop our antiquated nationalism, we’ll have nothing. Cartt.ca.  https://cartt.ca/?s=antiquated+nationalism+berkowitz

  252. Government of Canada. (January 29, 2020). Canada’s communication future: Time to act. http://www.ic.gc.ca/eic/site/110.nsf/eng/00012.html

  253. Some news on the Yale Report:
    Geist, M. (January 30, 2020). The CRTC knows best: Panel report recommends costly overhaul of Canadian communication law to regulate Internet sites and services worldwide. michaelgeist.ca http://www.michaelgeist.ca/2020/01/the-crtc-knows-best/
    Glasner, E. (January 29, 2020) cbc.ca https://www.cbc.ca/news/entertainment/broadcasting-telecommunications-report-netflix-cbc-1.5443478
    Kay, J. (January 31, 2020). The federal government’s unsettling communications power grab. The National Post. https://nationalpost.com/opinion/jonathan-kay-the-federal-governments-unsettling-communications-power-grab
    Malik, A. (January 29, 2020). BTLR panel opposes Netflix tax but wants to ensure contribution to CanCon. MobileSyrup.com https://mobilesyrup.com/2020/01/29/btlr-panel-opposes-netflix-tax-but-wants-to-ensure-contribution-to-cancon-canada/
    Menzies, P (January 30, 2020). The Globe and Mail. The CRTC report constitutes a stunning unjustified power grab. https://www.theglobeandmail.com/business/commentary/article-the-crtc-report-constitutes-a-stunning-unjustified-power-grab/
    Posadzky, A. (January 30, 2020). Panel recommends sweeping changes to Canada’s media and communications. The Globe and Mail. https://www.theglobeandmail.com/business/article-panel-recommends-sweeping-changes-to-canadas-media-and-communications/
    Vlessing, E. (January 29, 2020). Hollywood Reporter. Netflix tax proposal rejected in Canada https://www.hollywoodreporter.com/news/netflix-tax-proposal-rejected-canada-1274629

  254. Menzies, P. (January 30, 2020). Broadcasting report constitutes a stunning overreach. The Globe and Mail. https://www.theglobeandmail.com/business/commentary/article-the-crtc-report-constitutes-a-stunning-unjustified-power-grab/

  255. Vlessing, E. (January 29, 2020). Netflix tax proposal rejected in Canada. Hollywood Reporter. https://www.hollywoodreporter.com/news/netflix-tax-proposal-rejected-canada-1274629

  256. Berkowitz, I. S (February 27, 2020). Yale Report a month on: The good, the bad and a quid pro quo. playbackonline.ca.https://playbackonline.ca/2020/02/27/yale-report-a-month-on-the-good-the-bad-and-a-quid-pro-q

  257. CanLII connects (June 20, 2014). Supreme Court of Canada: ISPs not subject to federal Broadcasting Act https://canliiconnects.org/en/commentaries/27686

  258. CMF (September 17, 2020). CMF annonces 19M in Covid-19 Emergency Support fund for film and television productions. https://cmf-fmc.ca/en-ca/programs-deadlines/programs/covid-19-emergency-relief-funds-interactive-digit

  259. Ahearn, V. and Deschamps. T. Coronavirus: Canada creates 50M fund for film, TV productions without insurance. The Canadian Press. https://globalnews.ca/news/7360446/coronavirus-productions-tv-insurance/

  260. Banff World Media Festival. Netflix. https://dov.banffmediafestival.playbackonline.ca/

  261. Pinto, J. (November 3, 2020). Minister Steven Guilbeault proposes bill to regulate OTT’s, grant more power to CRTC. Playback. https://playbackonline.ca/2020/11/03/minister-steven-guilbeault-proposes-bill-to-regulate-otts-grant-more-power-to-crtc/

  262. Geist, M. (November 3, 2020). The Government’s Internet Regulation Bill: Why Bill C-10 Will Mean a CRTC-Approved Netflix Service, Reduced Consumer Choice, and Less Investment in Canadian Culture.  Michael Geist.ca https://www.michaelgeist.ca/2020/11/the-governments-internet-regulation-bill-why-bill-c-10-will-mean-a-crtc-approved-netflix-service-reduced-consumer-choice-and-less-investment-in-canadian-culture/

  263. Berkowitz, I.S. (December 7, 2016). Hey Industry: Let’s be clear about the Netflix tax. http://playbackonline.ca/2017/12/07/column-hey-industry-lets-be-clear-about-the-netflix-tax/

  264. Snider, M. (February 16, 2021). Americans are united on one thing: We have become a nation of streamers euring coronavirus pandemic. USA Today. https://www.usatoday.com/story/tech/2021/02/16/netflix-amazon-streaming-video-disney-hulu-hbo-max-peacock/6759020002/

  265. Malyk., L. (February 11, 2021). Netflix to make new home in Canada. Playback. https://playbackonline.ca/2021/02/11/netflix-to-make-a-new-home-in-canada/

  266. Quote  by Patricia Elliott, then Consul and Senior Trade Commissioner of Los Angeles Office of the Canada Trade Commissioner Service (TCS) in Berkowitz, I. (August 29, 2017). Los Angeles Trade Commission: “to sell to a global market, create for a global market.” CMF Trends. https://trends.cmf-fmc.ca/los-angeles-trade-commissioner-to-sell-to-a-global-market-create-for-a-global-market/

  267. Scholarly consensus is this is a paraphrase of a June 1946 statement by Einstein saying a new type of thinking is essential if mankind is to survive and move to higher levels. In  “Atomic Education Urged by Einstein,” The New York Times (May 25, 1946).

  268. All the world’s a stage: Growing Britain’s creative industries, pps. 6-8

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  272. Bryar, C. and Carr. B. (2021). Working backwards: Insights, stories and secrets from inside Amazon. St. Martin’s Press.  https://www.amazon.com/Working-Backwards-Insights-Stories-Secrets/dp/1250267595

  273. Government of Canada (August 10, 2009). Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission. The MAPL system: Defining a Canadian song.  https://crtc.gc.ca/eng/info_sht/r1.htm

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